iobalance.gms : Updating and Projecting Coefficients: The RAS Approach

Description

The RAS procedure (named after Richard A. Stone) is an iterative procedure to
update matrices. This numerical example is taken from chapter 7.4.2 of Miller
and Blair. Several additional optimization formulations will be applied to
this toy problem.


Reference

  • Miller, R E, and Blair, P D, Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Small Model of Type : NLP


Category : GAMS Model library


Main file : iobalance.gms

$title Updating and Projecting Coefficients: The RAS Approach (IOBALANCE,SEQ=378)

$onText
The RAS procedure (named after Richard A. Stone) is an iterative procedure to
update matrices. This numerical example is taken from chapter 7.4.2 of Miller
and Blair. Several additional optimization formulations will be applied to
this toy problem.


Miller R E, and Blair P D, Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions,
Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

Keywords: linear programming, nonlinear programming, quadratic constraints, statistics
$offText

Set i / 1*3 /;

Alias (i,j);

Table a0(i,j) 'known base matrix'
         1     2     3
   1  .120  .100  .049
   2  .210  .247  .265
   3  .026  .249  .145;

Table z1(i,j) 'unknown industry flows'
       1   2   3
   1  98  72  75
   2  65   8  63
   3  88  27  44;

Parameter
   x(j)    'observed total output' / 1 421, 2 284, 3 283 /
   u(i)    'observed row totals'
   v(j)    'observed column totals'
   a1(i,j) 'unknown matrix A';

u(i) = sum(j, z1(i,j));
v(j) = sum(i, z1(i,j));

a1(i,j) = z1(i,j)/x(j);

display u, v, a1;

* --- 1: RAS updating
Parameter
   r(i) 'row adjustment'
   s(j) 'column adjustment';

r(i) = 1;
s(j) = 1;

Parameter oldr, olds, maxdelta;
maxdelta = 1;

repeat
   oldr(i) = r(i);
   olds(j) = s(j);
   r(i) = r(i)*u(i)/sum(j, r(i)*a0(i,j)*x(j)*s(j));
   s(j) = s(j)*v(j)/sum(i, r(i)*a0(i,j)*x(j)*s(j));
   maxdelta = max(smax(i, abs(oldr(i) - r(i))),
                  smax(j, abs(olds(j) - s(j))));
   display maxdelta;
until maxdelta < 0.005;

Parameter report(*,i,j) 'summary report';
option report:3:1:2;

report('A0' ,i,j) = a0(i,j);
report('A1' ,i,j) = a1(i,j);
report('RAS',i,j) = r(i)*a0(i,j)*s(j);

* --- 2: Entropy formulation   a*ln(a/a0)
*        The RAS procedure gives the solution to the Entropy formulation
Variable
   obj    'objective value'
   a(i,j) 'estimated A matrix'
   z(i,j) 'estimated Z matrix';

Positive Variable a, z;

Equation
   rowbal(i) 'row totals'
   colbal(j) 'column totals'
   defobjent 'entropy definition';

rowbal(i).. sum(j, a(i,j)*x(j)) =e= u(i);

colbal(j).. sum(i, a(i,j)*x(j)) =e= v(j);

defobjent.. obj =e= sum((i,j), x(j)*a(i,j)*log(a(i,j)/a0(i,j)));

Model mEntropy / rowbal, colbal, defobjent /;

* we need to exclude small values to avoid domain violations
a.lo(i,j) = 1e-5;

solve mEntropy using nlp min obj; report('Entropy',i,j) = a.l(i,j);

* --- 3: Entropy with flow variable
*        we can balance the flow matrix instead of the A matrix
Variable zv(i,j) 'industry flows';

Equation
   rowbalz(i) 'row totals'
   colbalz(j) 'column totals tive'
   defobjentz 'entropy objective using flows';

rowbalz(i).. sum(j, zv(i,j)) =e= u(i);

colbalz(j).. sum(i, zv(i,j)) =e= v(j);

Parameter zbar(i,j) 'reference flow';

zbar(i,j)  = a0(i,j)*x(j);
zv.lo(i,j) = 1;

defobjentz.. obj =e= sum((i,j), zv(i,j)*log(zv(i,j)/zbar(i,j)));

Model mEntropyz / rowbalz, colbalz, defobjentz /;

* turn off detailed outputs
option limRow = 0, limCol = 0, solPrint = off;

solve mEntropyz using nlp min obj; report('EntropyZ',i,j) = zv.l(i,j)/x(j);

* --- 4. absolute deviation formulations result in LPs
*        MAD Mean Absolute Deviations
*        MAPE Mean absolute percentage error
*        Linf Infinity norm
Positive Variable
   ap(i,j) 'positive deviation iation'
   an(i,j) 'negative deviation'
   amax    'maximum absilute dev';

Equation
   defabs(i,j)  'absolute definition'
   defmaxp(i,j) 'max positive'
   defmaxn(i,j) 'max neagtive'
   defmad       'MAD definition'
   defmade      'mean absolute percentage error'
   deflinf      'infinity norm';

defabs(i,j)..  a(i,j) - a0(i,j) =e= ap(i,j) - an(i,j);

defmaxp(i,j).. a(i,j) - a0(i,j) =l=  amax;

defmaxn(i,j).. a(i,j) - a0(i,j) =g= -amax;

defmad..  obj =e=   1/sqr(card(i))*sum((i,j), ap(i,j) + an(i,j));

defmade.. obj =e= 100/sqr(card(i))*sum((i,j),(ap(i,j) + an(i,j))/a0(i,j));

defLinf.. obj =e= amax;

Model
   mMAD  / rowbal, colbal, defabs,  defmad           /
   mMADE / rowbal, colbal, defabs,  defmade          /
   mLinf / rowbal, colbal, defmaxp, defmaxn, deflinf /;

solve mMAD  using lp min obj; report('MAD' ,i,j) = a.l(i,j);
solve mMADe using lp min obj; report('MADE',i,j) = a.l(i,j);
solve mLinf using lp min obj; report('Linf',i,j) = a.l(i,j);

* --- 5. Squared Deviations can be solved with powerful QP codes
*        SD     squared deviations
*        RSD    relative squared deviations
Equation defsd, defrsd;

defsd..  obj =e= sum((i,j), sqr(a(i,j) + a0(i,j)));

defrsd.. obj =e= sum((i,j), sqr(a(i,j) + a0(i,j))/a0(i,j));

Model
   mSD  / rowbal, colbal, defsd  /
   mRSD / rowbal, colbal, defrsd /;

solve mSD  using qcp min obj; report('SD' ,i,j) = a.l(i,j);
solve mRSD using qcp min obj; report('RSD',i,j) = a.l(i,j);

display report;