water.gms : Design of a Water Distribution Network

**Description**

This example illustrates the use of nonlinear programming in the design of water distribution systems. The model captures the main features of an actual application for a city in Indonesia.

**References**

- Brooke, A, Drud, A S, and Meeraus, A, Modeling Systems and Nonlinear Programming in a Research Environment. In Ragavan, R, and Rohde, S M, Eds, Computers in Engineering, Vol. III. ACME, 1985.
- Drud, A S, and Rosenborg, A, Dimensioning Water Distribution Networks. Masters thesis, Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Operations Research, Technical University of Denmark, 1973. In Danish

**Small Model of Type :** DNLP

**Category :** GAMS Model library

**Main file :** water.gms

```
$Title Design of a Water Distribution Network (WATER,SEQ=68)
$Ontext
This example illustrates the use of nonlinear programming in the design of
water distribution systems. The model captures the main features of an
actual application for a city in Indonesia.
Brooke, A, Drud, A S, and Meeraus, A, Modeling Systems and Nonlinear
Programming in a Research Environment. In Ragavan, R, and Rohde, S M,
Eds, Computers in Engineering, Vol. III. ACME, 1985.
Drud, A S, and Rosenborg, A, Dimensioning Water Distribution Networks.
Masters thesis, Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Operations
Research, Technical University of Denmark, 1973. (in Danish)
$Offtext
Set n nodes / nw north west reservoir
e east reservoir
cc central city
w west
sw south west
s south
se south east
n north /
a(n,n) arcs (arbitrarily directed) / nw.(w,cc,n), e.(n,cc,s,se), cc.(w,sw,s,n), s.se, s.sw, sw.w /
rn(n) reservoirs / nw, e /
dn(n) demand nodes; dn(n) = yes; dn(rn) = no; Display dn;
Alias (n,np);
Table node(n,*) node data
demand height x y supply wcost pcost
* m**3/sec m over base m m m**3/sec rp/m**3 rp/m**4
nw 6.50 1200 3600 2.500 0.20 1.02
e 3.25 4000 2200 6.000 0.17 1.02
cc 1.212 3.02 2000 2300
w 0.452 5.16 750 2400
sw 0.245 4.20 900 1200
s 0.652 1.50 2000 1000
se 0.252 0.00 4000 900
n 0.456 6.30 3700 3500
Parameter dist(n,n) distance between nodes (m);
dist(a(n,np)) = sqrt( sqr( node(n,"x")-node(np,"x") ) + sqr( node(n,"y")-node(np,"y") ) );
display dist;
Scalar dpow power on diameter in pressure loss equation / 5.33 /
qpow power on flow in pressure loss equation / 2.00 /
dmin minimum diameter of pipe / 0.15 /
dmax maximum diameter of pipe / 2.00 /
hloss constant in the pressure loss equation / 1.03e-3/
dprc scale factor in the investment cost equation / 6.90e-2/
cpow power on diameter in the cost equation / 1.29 /
r interest rate / 0.10 /
davg average diameter (geometric mean)
rr ratio of demand to supply;
davg = sqrt(dmin*dmax);
rr = sum(dn, node(dn,"demand")) / sum(rn, node(rn,"supply"));
Variables q(n,n) flow on each arc - signed (m**3 per sec)
d(n,n) pipe diameter for each arc (m)
h(n) pressure at each node (m)
s(n) supply at reservoir nodes (m**3 per sec)
pcost annual recurrent pump costs (mill rp)
dcost investment costs for pipes (mill rp)
wcost annual recurrent water costs (mill rp)
cost total discounted costs (mill rp)
Equations cont(n) flow conservation equation at each node
loss(n,n) pressure loss on each arc
peq pump cost equation
deq investment cost equation
weq water cost equation
obj objective function;
cont(n).. sum(a(np,n), q(a)) - sum(a(n,np), q(a)) + s(n)$rn(n) =e= node(n,"demand");
loss(a(n,np)).. h(n) - h(np) =e= (hloss*dist(a)*abs(q(a))**(qpow-1)*q(a)/d(a)**dpow) $(qpow <> 2) +
(hloss*dist(a)*abs(q(a)) *q(a)/d(a)**dpow) $(qpow = 2);
peq.. pcost =e= sum(rn, s(rn)*node(rn,"pcost")*(h(rn)-node(rn,"height")));
deq.. dcost =e= dprc*sum(a, dist(a)*d(a)**cpow);
weq.. wcost =e= sum(rn, s(rn)*node(rn,"wcost"));
obj.. cost =e= (pcost + wcost)/r + dcost;
*
* bounds
*
d.lo(a) = dmin; d.up(a) = dmax;
h.lo(rn) = node(rn,"height"); h.lo(dn) = node(dn,"height") + 7.5 + 5.0*node(dn,"demand");
s.lo(rn) = 0; s.up(rn) = node(rn,"supply");
*
* initial values
*
d.l(a) = davg;
h.l(n) = h.lo(n) + 1.0;
s.l(rn) = node(rn,"supply")*rr;
Model network /all/;
Solve network using dnlp minimizing cost;
Display q.l;
```