### Table of Contents

- Date
- 16 April 2013

# Introduction

ANTIGONE, Algorithms for coNTinuous / Integer Global Optimization of Nonlinear Equations, is a deterministic general mixed-integer nonlinear global optimization framework [133, 134, 135, 136, 137] .

\[ \begin{array}{rl} \tag{MINLP} \min \; & \phantom{b_m^{\mathrm{LO}} \leq {}} f_0(\boldsymbol{x}, \, \boldsymbol{y}, \, \boldsymbol{z}) \\[8pt] \text{s.t. } & b_m^{\mathrm{LO}} \leq f_m(\boldsymbol{x}, \, \boldsymbol{y}, \, \boldsymbol{z}) \leq b_m^{\mathrm{UP}} \quad \forall \; m \in \{ 1, \, \ldots, \, M \} \\[10pt] & \boldsymbol{x} \in \mathbb{R}^{C}; \; \boldsymbol{y} \in \left\{ 0, \, 1 \right\}^{B}; \; \boldsymbol{z} \in \mathbb{Z}^{I} \\ \end{array} \]

where \(C\), \(B\), \(I\), and \(M\) represent the number of continuous variables, binary variables, integer variables, and constraints, respectively. Parameters vectors \(\boldsymbol{b_m^{\mathrm{LO}}}\) and \(\boldsymbol{b_m^{\mathrm{UP}}}\) bound the constraints. We assume that it is possible to infer finite bounds \(\left[ x_i^L, \, x_i^U \right]\) on the variables participating in nonlinear terms \(f_m\) and that the image of \(f_m\) is finite on \(\boldsymbol{x}\). Typical expressions for \(f_0(\boldsymbol{x}, \, \boldsymbol{y}, \, \boldsymbol{z})\) and \(f_m(\boldsymbol{x}, \, \boldsymbol{y}, \, \boldsymbol{z})\) are:

\[ \begin{split} f_m(\boldsymbol{x}, \, \boldsymbol{y}, \, \boldsymbol{z}) = c_m & + a_m^T \, \left[ \boldsymbol{x}; \; \boldsymbol{y}; \; \boldsymbol{z} \right] + \left[ \boldsymbol{x}; \; \boldsymbol{y}; \; \boldsymbol{z} \right]^T \, Q_m \, \left[ \boldsymbol{x}; \; \boldsymbol{y}; \; \boldsymbol{z} \right] \\ & + \sum\limits_{s = 1}^{S_m} c_{s_m} \cdot \prod\limits_{c = 1}^C x_c^{p_{s_m, \, c}} + \sum\limits_{e = 1}^{E_m} c_{e_m} \cdot e^x + \sum\limits_{\ell = 1}^{L_m} c_{\ell_m} \cdot \log x \end{split} \]

where the powers \(p_{s_m, \, c}\) are constant reals; \(c_m, \, a_m, \, Q_m, \, c_{s_m}, \, c_{e_m}, \, c_{\ell_m}\) are constant coefficients; \(S_m\), \(E_m\), \(L_m\) are the number of signomial, exponential, and logarithmic terms, respectively.

As illustrated in the following figure, ANTIGONE responds dynamically to exploit special structure within (MINLP). ANTIGONE falls broadly into the category of branch-and-bound global optimization because it: generates and solves convex relaxations of the nonconvex MINLP that rigorously bound the global solution; finds feasible solutions via local optimization; divides and conquers the feasible set to generate a sequence of convex relaxations converging to the global optimum [65, 64] .

## Licensing and software requirements

Using GAMS/ANTIGONE requires

- an ANTIGONE license,
- a CPLEX license, and
- a CONOPT or SNOPT license.

## Running GAMS/ANTIGONE

GAMS/ANTIGONE solves: `NLP`

; `MINLP`

; `RMINLP`

; `QCP`

; `MIQCP`

; `RMIQCP`

; `CNS`

. If GAMS/ANTIGONE is not the default solver for these models, it can be called using the following command before the `solve`

statement:

option nlp=antigone, minlp=antigone, rminlp=antigone;

# GAMS/ANTIGONE Output

The log output shown below is generated using the MINLP model cecil_13 from the MINLPLib.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ANTIGONE: Algorithms for coNTinuous/Integer Global Optimization; Version 1.0 Ruth Misener and Christodoulos A. Floudas Computer-Aided Systems Laboratory (CASL) Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering; Princeton University ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Before Pre-processing: 840 Variables 660 Continuous 180 Binary 929 Equations After Pre-processing: 520 Variables 418 Continuous 102 Binary 499 Equations 291 Linear 208 Nonconvex nonlinear 232 Nonlinear Terms 232 Signomial 730 Possible Reformulation Linearization Technique (RLT) equations 34 RLT Equations Added Outright to Formulation Constituent Libraries: CPLEX Solving relaxations CONOPT Finding feasible points LAPACK Addressing linear systems Boost Bounding Intervals ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Time (s) Nodes explored Nodes remaining Best possible Best found Relative Gap ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 65 1 1 -1.158e+05 -1.157e+05 +1.032e-03 134 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.337e-04 202 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.334e-04 258 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.140e-06 Solving MILP relaxation at tree level 0 ---------------------------------- 341 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.091e-06 413 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.011e-06 Solving MILP relaxation at tree level 0 ---------------------------------- 483 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +4.001e-06 571 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +3.959e-06 Solving MILP relaxation at tree level 0 ---------------------------------- 640 1 1 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +3.880e-06 Solving MILP relaxation at tree level 0 ---------------------------------- 702 1 0 -1.157e+05 -1.157e+05 +1.000e-06 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Termination Status : Global minimum Best Feasible Point: -1.156565e+05 Best Possible Point: -1.156566e+05 Relative Gap: +1.000000e-06 Algorithm analysis : 0 Nodes explored 0 Nodes remaining 0 Maximum tree depth 183 Cutting Planes (183 Globally Valid) 183 Signomial 702.38 Total time (CPU s) 0.07 Pre-processing 698.56 Solving MILP relaxations 0.95 Searching for feasible solutions 2.79 Variable bounds tightening 2.31 OBBT 1.48 FBBT (0.13 EC; 0.92 RLT; 0.00 Factoring) 0.00 Branching 0.00 Reliability branching -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Summary of ANTIGONE Options

## General Options

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

abs_opt_tol | absolute stopping tolerance | `GAMS optca` |

dumpsolutions | name of solutions index gdx file for writing alternate solutions | |

max_number_nodes | node limit | `GAMS nodlim` |

max_time | resource limit | `GAMS reslim` |

readparams | read secondary option file in ANTIGONE syntax | |

rel_opt_tol | relative stopping tolerance | `GAMS optcr` |

trydual | call CONOPT or SNOPT to produce duals | `5` |

## Options for Solving the MILP Relaxations

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

cplex_optfile | read a secondary GAMS/CPLEX options file that will be applied to every LP and MILP subsolve | |

cut_generation_epsilon | absolute violation threshold for separating hyperplanes | `1e-4` |

nominal_time_limit | nominal time limit for solving MILP subproblems | `100` |

populate_solution_pool | emphasis on generating starting points | `3` |

## Options for Finding Feasible Solutions

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

conopt_optfile | read a secondary GAMS/CONOPT options file that will be applied to every NLP subsolve | |

feas_soln_time_limit | time limit (s) for an NLP solve | `30` |

feas_tolerance | absolute feasibility tolerance | `1e-6` |

nlp_solver | use CONOPT or SNOPT to find feasible solutions | `conopt` |

## Options for Branching

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

branching_bounds_push_away | branch a minimum fraction away from the variable bounds | `0.1` |

branching_weight | branch on a convex combination of midpoint and solution | `0.25` |

num_reliability_tests | number of strong branching initialization tests | `8` |

reliability_branching | heuristic choice for building reliable pseudocosts | `error` |

reliability_branching_mu | score parameter for building reliability | `0.15` |

use_reliability_branching | use reliability branching? | `1` |

## Options for Bounding

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

fbbt_improvement_bound | bounds reduction improvement threshold needed to exit FBBT loop | `0.999` |

max_fbbt_iterations | maximum number of FBBT iterations | `50` |

max_obbt_iterations | maximum number of OBBT iterations | `30` |

max_time_each_obbt | time limit (s) for each OBBT LP | `10` |

obbt_improvement_bound | bounds reduction improvement threshold | `0.95` |

use_obbt | use optimality-based bounds tightening? | `1` |

## Options for Logging to the Console

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

logging_freq | how often should we log progress to the console? | `5` |

logging_level | logging information level | `-1` |

print_options | print the option parameter choices used in a single run? | `1` |

## Options for Addressing Special Structure

Option | Description | Default |
---|---|---|

adaptive_add_rlt | use the dynamic approach to adaptively determine deep RLT cuts? | `1` |

adaptive_add_rlt_tree_depth | tree depth for heuristic that adaptively determines deep RLT cuts | `3` |

add_bilinear_terms | allow addition of nonconvex bilinear terms to generate deep RLT cuts | `1` |

convexity_cuts | derive convexity-based separating cuts for multivariable terms? | `1` |

dominant_ec_only | add only the low-dimension edge-concave aggregations introducing dominant cuts into relaxations? | `1` |

eigenvector_projections | use eigenvector projections as additional cuts? | `1` |

eigenvector_projection_partitioning | allow partitioning on eigenvector projections? | `1` |

low_dim_edge_concave_agg | use low-dimension edge-concave aggregations? | `1` |

max_partitioned_quantities | number of partitioned quantities | `0` |

max_rlt_cuts | maximum number of violated RLT cuts to add before resolving the relaxation? | `100` |

naive_add_ec | naively integrate all low-dimension edge-concave aggregations into relaxations? | `0` |

naive_add_rlt | naively add all RLT cuts to the relaxations? | `0` |

number_of_partitions | how many partitions per variable? | `1` |

partitioning_scheme | Partitioning scheme can be linear or logarithmic | `linear` |

piecewise_linear_partitions | use piecewise-linear partitioning? | `0` |

rlt | find RLT variable/equation and equation/equation pairs? | `1` |

use_alpha_bb | apply globally-valid alphaBB cuts to tighten a node relaxation | `1` |

use_edge_concave_dynamic | apply locally-valid edge-concave cuts to tighten a node relaxation | `1` |

In addition, GAMS option threads specifies the number of processors to use for linear algebra routines, e.g., when computing eigenvalues of a quadratic coefficients matrix. By default, all available processors are used.

# Detailed Descriptions of ANTIGONE Options

**abs_opt_tol** *(real)*: absolute stopping tolerance ↵

Default:

`GAMS optca`

**adaptive_add_rlt** *(boolean)*: use the dynamic approach to adaptively determine deep RLT cuts? ↵

In the first few levels of the branch-and-bound tree, query the RLT equations after solving an initial relaxation. Add violated equations to the relaxation and resolve. Track the most commonly-violated equations and include those cuts in later nodes.

Default:

`1`

**adaptive_add_rlt_tree_depth** *(integer)*: tree depth for heuristic that adaptively determines deep RLT cuts ↵

To the specified tree depth, solve the relaxation of a node twice if RLT equations are violated. After this depth, automatically add the most commonly violated cuts to the solution of each node

Range: {

`1`

, ...,`100`

}Default:

`3`

**add_bilinear_terms** *(boolean)*: allow addition of nonconvex bilinear terms to generate deep RLT cuts ↵

Default:

`1`

**branching_bounds_push_away** *(real)*: branch a minimum fraction away from the variable bounds ↵

Range: [

`0`

,`0.5`

]Default:

`0.1`

**branching_weight** *(real)*: branch on a convex combination of midpoint and solution ↵

The branching weight specifies the emphasis on the midpoint of a variable, so larger branching weights imply branching closer to the center of a variable range.

Range: [

`0`

,`1`

]Default:

`0.25`

**conopt_optfile** *(string)*: read a secondary GAMS/CONOPT options file that will be applied to every NLP subsolve ↵

Gain direct access to the GAMS/CONOPT options. The value of the string should match the name of the GAMS/CONOPT options file.

**convexity_cuts** *(boolean)*: derive convexity-based separating cuts for multivariable terms? ↵

Default:

`1`

**cplex_optfile** *(string)*: read a secondary GAMS/CPLEX options file that will be applied to every LP and MILP subsolve ↵

Gain direct access to the GAMS/CPLEX options. Specifying an options file allows, for example, the possibility of running the CPLEX subsolver with multiple threads. The value of the string should match the name of the GAMS/CPLEX options file.

**cut_generation_epsilon** *(real)*: absolute violation threshold for separating hyperplanes ↵

Absolute violation threshold to generate separating hyperplanes for convex multivariable terms

Range: [

`1e-7`

,`10`

]Default:

`1e-4`

**dominant_ec_only** *(boolean)*: add only the low-dimension edge-concave aggregations introducing dominant cuts into relaxations? ↵

Default:

`1`

**dumpsolutions** *(string)*: name of solutions index gdx file for writing alternate solutions ↵

The GDX file specified by this option will contain a set call

`index`

that contains the names of GDX files with the individual solutions. For details see example model dumpsol in the GAMS Test Library.

**eigenvector_projections** *(boolean)*: use eigenvector projections as additional cuts? ↵

Default:

`1`

**eigenvector_projection_partitioning** *(boolean)*: allow partitioning on eigenvector projections? ↵

Default:

`1`

**fbbt_improvement_bound** *(real)*: bounds reduction improvement threshold needed to exit FBBT loop ↵

Range: [

`0`

,`1`

]Default:

`0.999`

**feas_soln_time_limit** *(real)*: time limit (s) for an NLP solve ↵

Range: [

`1`

, ∞]Default:

`30`

**feas_tolerance** *(real)*: absolute feasibility tolerance ↵

Default:

`1e-6`

**logging_freq** *(real)*: how often should we log progress to the console? ↵

Wait at least the specified time in seconds before next output to the console

Range: [

`1`

, ∞]Default:

`5`

**logging_level** *(integer)*: logging information level ↵

Log to the console at the specified level (-1: default; 0: minimal logging; 3: extensive logging)

Default:

`-1`

value meaning `-1`

minimal plus warnings `0`

minimal `1`

entering info `2`

updating info `3`

includes Cplex updates

**low_dim_edge_concave_agg** *(boolean)*: use low-dimension edge-concave aggregations? ↵

Default:

`1`

**max_fbbt_iterations** *(integer)*: maximum number of FBBT iterations ↵

Range: {

`1`

, ...,`100`

}Default:

`50`

**max_number_nodes** *(integer)*: node limit ↵

Default:

`GAMS nodlim`

**max_obbt_iterations** *(integer)*: maximum number of OBBT iterations ↵

Range: {

`1`

, ...,`100`

}Default:

`30`

**max_partitioned_quantities** *(integer)*: number of partitioned quantities ↵

Range: {

`0`

, ...,`50`

}Default:

`0`

**max_rlt_cuts** *(integer)*: maximum number of violated RLT cuts to add before resolving the relaxation? ↵

Range: {

`1`

, ...,`1000`

}Default:

`100`

**max_time** *(real)*: resource limit ↵

Default:

`GAMS reslim`

**max_time_each_obbt** *(real)*: time limit (s) for each OBBT LP ↵

Range: [

`1`

,`100`

]Default:

`10`

**naive_add_ec** *(boolean)*: naively integrate all low-dimension edge-concave aggregations into relaxations? ↵

Default:

`0`

**naive_add_rlt** *(boolean)*: naively add all RLT cuts to the relaxations? ↵

Default:

`0`

**nlp_solver** *(string)*: use CONOPT or SNOPT to find feasible solutions ↵

Note, that independent of the setting for this option, for the initial NLP solve from the user provided starting point, always CONOPT is used, if available. Further, for the final NLP solve (see trydual), always CONOPT is used, if available, otherwise SNOPT is used.

Default:

`conopt`

value meaning `conopt`

Conopt `snopt`

Snopt

**nominal_time_limit** *(real)*: nominal time limit for solving MILP subproblems ↵

Nominal time limit for solving MILP subproblems. Terminate long-running MILP subproblems over this time limit once they reach an integer feasible point

Range: [

`0.1`

,`1000`

]Default:

`100`

**number_of_partitions** *(integer)*: how many partitions per variable? ↵

Range: {

`0`

, ...,`16`

}Default:

`1`

**num_reliability_tests** *(integer)*: number of strong branching initialization tests ↵

Range: {

`1`

, ...,`100`

}Default:

`8`

**obbt_improvement_bound** *(real)*: bounds reduction improvement threshold ↵

Bounds reduction improvement threshold needed to exit OBBT loop This parameter also determines whether to continue obbt in child; if the parent bound improvement is less than this threshold, then child node won't try OBBT

Range: [

`0`

,`1`

]Default:

`0.95`

**partitioning_scheme** *(string)*: Partitioning scheme can be linear or logarithmic ↵

Linear partitioning uses a number of binary variables linear in the number of partitions while logarithmic partitioning uses a number of binary variables logarithmic in the number of breakpoints. Linear partitioning tends to be numerically favorable for a few breakpoints while logarithmic partitioning is better for a larger number of breakpoints.

Default:

`linear`

value meaning `linear`

Linear partitioning `logarithmic`

Logarithmic partitioning

**piecewise_linear_partitions** *(boolean)*: use piecewise-linear partitioning? ↵

Default:

`0`

**populate_solution_pool** *(integer)*: emphasis on generating starting points ↵

Emphasis on generating many starting points for NLP solves using the CPLEX solution pool feature. Larger number implies more starting points.

Range: {

`0`

, ...,`4`

}Default:

`3`

**print_options** *(boolean)*: print the option parameter choices used in a single run? ↵

Default:

`1`

**readparams** *(string)*: read secondary option file in ANTIGONE syntax ↵

**reliability_branching** *(string)*: heuristic choice for building reliable pseudocosts ↵

Default:

`error`

value meaning `error`

Max Error Branching `forward`

Forward branching `reverse`

Reverse branching

**reliability_branching_mu** *(real)*: score parameter for building reliability ↵

Range: [

`0`

,`1`

]Default:

`0.15`

**rel_opt_tol** *(real)*: relative stopping tolerance ↵

Default:

`GAMS optcr`

**rlt** *(boolean)*: find RLT variable/equation and equation/equation pairs? ↵

Default:

`1`

**trydual** *(real)*: call CONOPT or SNOPT to produce duals ↵

Spend the specified amount of time in seconds or less in producing a dual solution by calling CONOPT or SNOPT.

Range: [

`0`

, ∞]Default:

`5`

**use_alpha_bb** *(boolean)*: apply globally-valid alphaBB cuts to tighten a node relaxation ↵

Default:

`1`

**use_edge_concave_dynamic** *(boolean)*: apply locally-valid edge-concave cuts to tighten a node relaxation ↵

Default:

`1`

**use_obbt** *(boolean)*: use optimality-based bounds tightening? ↵

Default:

`1`

**use_reliability_branching** *(boolean)*: use reliability branching? ↵

Default:

`1`

# ANTIGONE Algorithmic Features

As illustrated in the figure above, the primary algorithmic features in ANTIGONE are reformulating model input, elucidating special structure, and branch-and-bound global optimization [133, 134, 135, 136, 137] .

## Reformulating Model Input

As illustrated in the figure below, ANTIGONE transforms a factorable programming tree into a flattened expression tree to capitalize on the development of tight convex underestimators for specific classes of nonlinear terms. ANTIGONE extends the efficacy of hybrid strategies by meaningfully integrating mutually reinforcing operator- and term-based strategies [26, 75, 136] . This approach reformulates towards multivariable terms with specialized underestimators while maintaining a tree-like representation of powers that cannot be distributed and convex operators that can be exploited by dynamic cut generation.

(a) Binary Expression Tree |
(b) Factorable Programming Tree |
(c) Flattened Expression Tree |

_{1}- 4)

^{2}is not expanded.

## Elucidating Special Structure

After reformulating the user-defined MINLP, ANTIGONE detects special mathematical structure that it will exploit in the branch-and-cut phase (Section Branch-and-Bound Global Optimization). The types of special structure that ANTIGONE considers are: reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) equations; convexity/concavity; edge-convexity/edge-concavity; \(\alpha\)BB relaxations; term-specific underestimators [133, 134, 135, 136, 137] .

**RLT**multiplies every pairwise combination of: variables; nonlinear terms; equations [10, 118, 134, 136, 137, 172, 168, 169, 170, 171] . ANTIGONE saves the combinations that do*not*introduce new terms into the model formulation and updates these equations at every node of the branch-and-cut tree. Special RLT equations are added directly to the model formulation; other RLT equations are used as cutting planes and integrated into the feasibility-based bounds tightening routines.**Convexity/Concavity**permits the easy generation of a cutting plane at a point \(\hat{x}\):\[ \begin{array}{ll} f(x) \geq f(\hat{x}) + f'(x) \cdot \left( x - \hat{x} \right) & \text{(convex)} \\ f(x) \leq f(\hat{x}) + f'(x) \cdot \left( x - \hat{x} \right) & \text{(concave)} \end{array} \]

Based on interval arithmetic, terms and multi-term expressions are labeled as always/sometimes/never convex/ concave; this information is used in the branch-and-cut phase.**Edge-Convexity/Edge-Concavity**implies a vertex polyhedral envelope; ANTIGONE labels terms and multi-term expressions as always/sometimes/never edge-convex/edge-concave with a simple interval arithmetic test [132, 176, 174, 175] .- \(\alpha\textbf{BB}\) underestimators convexify an expression with univariate quadratics [4, 5, 9, 67, 127]; ANTIGONE uses \(\alpha\)BB to relax aggregates of bilinear terms.
**Term-Specific Underestimators**are diagrammed in the figure below; their implementation is based on work available in the open literature [51, 52, 66, 76, 117, 124, 122, 123, 128, 132, 133, 145, 176, 174, 177] .

## Branch-and-Bound Global Optimization

After the reformulation and special structure detection phases, ANTIGONE initiates a branch-and-cut global optimization algorithm that generates tight convex underestimators, dynamically generates separating hyperplanes, bounds the variables [5, 9, 4, 10, 17, 48, 49, 115, 156, 157, 170, 171, 190]; branches on the search space [1, 17], and finds feasible solutions.